Hiding power comes from the paint's pigment and is affected by the manner and thickness of the application. Color retention is the ability to maintain its original color during exposure to sunlight, etc. Chalking resistance prevents the white chalky powder from forming on the surface and lightening the color of the paint. Chalking occur over a period of time. Blister resistance keeps excessive moisture from coming through the substrate and affecting the paint layer. Tip: if paint is applied over a damp or wet surface, blistering is imminent. Flat or Dead-Flat Oil - Provides a completely flat, oil-based finish. Generally used on walls but not suitable for areas of high wear. The term paint is used to include paints, varnishes, enamels, shellacs, lacquers, and stains. • Paints are composed of mineral pigments, organic vehicles, and a variety of thinners all combined. • Varnishes are resins dissolved in organic thinners. • Enamels are pigmented varnishes. • Shellac is lac gum dissolved in alcohol. • Lacquers may be both pigmented or clear - the liquid portion usually is treated nitrocellulose dissolve in thinners. • Stains may be pigmented oil or a penetrating type. Many of these materials, such as paints, varnishes, and lacquers, are formulated for specific purposes: • Outside house paints and exterior varnishes are intended to give good service when exposed to weathering • Interior wall paints are formulated to give excellent coverage and good wash-ability. • Floor enamels are made to withstand abrasion. • Lacquers are formulated for rapid drying. • There are also formulas which provide extra self-cleaning, fume- resisting, waterproofing, hardening, flexibility, mildew-resisting, resistance to fading, and breathing qualities.
Solvent or oil-based paints are used where a tough, durable finish is required for interior and exterior timber, masonry and furniture - although, as mentioned above, the new generation of acrylics and multi-surface paints offers viable alternatives. In general, brushes need to be cleaned with turpentine or white spirit. Paint Selection. Most paints are purchased ready-mixed but, in their selection, consideration should be given to the fact that surfaces vary in their adaptability to paint and atmospheric or other conditions having an adverse effect on paint performance. In addition to the normal weathering action of sun and rain, outside house paints are sometimes exposed to other attacking elements, such as corrosive fumes from factories or excessive amounts of wind-driven dust. Reading: To read well, a child needs to have developed the ability to notice the separate sounds in words. He also needs to be able to recognise similarities and differences in how words sound (eg: rhyming words or words that sound the same but have different meanings). Trying to learn these in a formal setting is daunting and removes the chance of the child feeling that he can take ownership of words; instead he feels that words are foist upon him and outside of his control. Consider purchasing a hand held paint caddy and use it instead of a regular plastic quart. They are easier to maneuver with and usually come with a strap to attach to your hand.