You scuff up existing paint for two reasons. First, you want to get rid of any oil, grease or dirt trapped in the top layer of paint. This is the stuff that cleaners and degreasers can't get off. The second reason to scuff is to set up a physical bond for the new primer and paint to adhere to. You want to give the old paint some tooth so the new sticks better.
Flat or Dead-Flat Oil - Provides a completely flat, oil-based finish. Generally used on walls but not suitable for areas of high wear.
Matt - Describes paints that give a flat, non-reflective finish. It is ideal for walls and ceilings that are not perfectly smooth.
Better still, you don't have to spend hours getting ready and hours cleaning up afterward. Premixed paints, electric-drill attachments and self-dispensing calking guns make short work of preparation. Cleaning up is a soap-and-water job for the rubber paints, or a quick dip in special cleaners for the oils. Disposable dropcloths and paper paint pails are used once and thrown away.
Cement-water paints are best suited for application to basement walls which are damp as a result of leakage or condensation. To apply these paints, the same procedure should be followed as is described here for painting exterior masonry walls.
Thinking skills (cognition): Thinking is a kind of "inner speech". We talk silently to ourselves to think through things and solve problems. Children in imaginative play begin to develop this skill through talking aloud and explaining everything that is happening in the game. (Think of the children playing in the "home corner" in your playschool and how they tell each other what to do and talk to the dolls and teddies). Slowly, as they become more practiced, this talking changes to become "inner speech" (they think it but don't say it out loud). This is a major foundation for developing thinking and reasoning skills.
Play develops through fairly standard stages and each stage is a necessary precursor for the next. These stages provide the key foundations for our children to become well-prepared to cope with the physical, cognitive, emotional and social demands of formal schooling. Rushing children through the different stages, does not mean they achieve school readiness quicker; it means they lose out on the developmental window to develop strongest foundations.